With the increase in use of private vehicle in recent years, the problem of car parking has raised in busy and big cities of the world. In crowded cities of the world, mostly a person has to spend a lot of time in finding the vacant parking lot.
To solve the problem and obtain the information about the parking lot on real-time the researchers has shown keen interest in use of wireless technologies. The WSN was chosen because of its potential in diverse fields.
This paper proposes a smart parking system based on wireless sensor network which will provide facility of advance reservation system, guidance and easy finding of the parking lot. The aim of this system is to improve the performance and satisfy the need of free parking lot. It reduces the time wastage in finding the vacant parking lot. It is based on reservation, guidance and finding easily vacant parking lot on real-time information.
(Jihoon Yang et al., 2012) in his paper has presented the design and implementation of a prototype system of smart parking service based on Wireless Sensor Networks to find a free parking lot effectively. In his defined system, the scheme consists of the Wireless sensor networks, embedded web server, web server, central web server and mobile application. The state of the parking lot is detected by the sensor and then reported to the web server. The information with the web server is updated and can be access by the driver in real time using mobile devices.
Hierarchical /smart parking scheme
This section describing using the figure 1, that how the design of this smart parking system is working. The general layout of the scenario is given in figure 1. The level 1 is defined as Zone Parking and is showing the parking lot.
The sensor in the parking lot will provide the information about the state of the parking lot. This information will be available in the form of lights display, where the green light will show that the parking lot is not filled, the orange light will show that the parking lot is reserved by car driver using application and the barrier will be raised to avoid the people from parking.
The red light will show that the parking lot is filled by the parked car. All this information will be passed by sensor to the lights and to the local parking zone. The level 2 is providing information to the global zone and then to the outside world.
Figure 1:- Smart Parking Basic Architecture
Figure 2: State Diagram of the Nodes
The state diagram figure 2 is providing information about the flow of information, the driver of the car will first check for parking lot using app or at the gate of parking lot.
If parking lot is free the driver will reserve one parking lot based on the provided information, if the parking lots are available the user will reserve the parking lot according to his choice, if no free parking lot available then user will check again for that.
when the parking lot is reserved a barrier in front of the parking lot will raise and the light will turn on orange. The barrier and the orange light will indicate that the parking lot is reserved for someone. In other cases if the parking lot is not available the user will check again for the available space after 1 mint.
The timer will start and after the reservation, the timer will be decremented one by one until the timer expires. The user will have to do again the reservation if the timer expires before the user reaches the parking lot.
When the car reach to the reserved parking lot with in time, the information provided during the reservation of lot will be matched as soon as the car reached in front of the reserved lot. If the information is matched the barrier will go down and the light will change to red, this information will indicate that the parking lot is reserved.
After parking car, the timer for payment will be started.
If the information did not match the car will not be allowed to be parked in the reserved parking lot, and the user will again do the search for parking lot from the beginning.